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Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer tends to develop in men over the age of fifty. Globally it
is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Prostate cancer
is most common in the developed world with increasing rates in the
developing world.
This is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male
reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing, however,
there are cases of aggressive prostate cancers. The cancer cells may
metastasize (spread) from the prostate to other parts of the body,
particularly the bones and lymph nodes. Prostate cancer may cause pain,
difficulty in urinating, problems during sexual intercourse or erectile
dysfunction. Other symptoms can potentially develop during later stages
of the disease.
However, many men with prostate cancer never have symptoms, undergo
no therapy and eventually die of other unrelated causes. Many factors,
including genetics and diet, have been implicated in the development of
prostate cancer.
The presence of prostate cancer may be indicated by symptoms, physical
examination, Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) or biopsy & MRI of
prostate.
All males above age 50 years should undergo annual PSA testing &
digital rectal examination by urologist.
Management strategies for prostate cancer should be guided by the
severity of the disease. Many low-risk tumours can be safely followed
with active surveillance. Curative treatment generally involves surgery,
various forms of radiation therapy . Hormonal therapy and chemotherapy
are generally reserved for cases of advanced disease (although hormonal
therapy may be given with radiation in some cases).
The decision whether or not to treat localised prostate cancer (a tumour
that is contained within the prostate) with curative intent is a patient
trade-off between the expected beneficial and harmful effects in terms of
patient survival and quality of life.

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Rosalina D. Williamson

founder, BasicTheme

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